To further our reflection on animal exploitation, amidst the current state of escalating institutionalized atrocities, it may prove helpful to retrace our steps and consider some introspections that have been pervasive throughout the ages.  The notion of animals as worthy of being free from human imposition is neither new nor fleeting.  The extracts cited below, each provided with the corresponding full-text document, can serve as an anchor in a critical analysis of our culture’s myopic attitude toward animals.

Jeremy Bentham

Under the Gentoo and Mahometan religions, the interests of the rest of the animal creation seem to have met with some attention.  Why have they not universally, with as much as those of human creatures, allowance made for the difference in point of sensibility?  Because the laws that are have been the work of mutual fear; a sentiment which the less rational animals have not had the same means as man has of turning to account.  Why ought they not?  No reason can be given.  If the being eaten were all, there is very good reason why we should be suffered to eat such of them as we like to eat:  we are the better for it, and they are never the worse.  They have none of those long-protracted anticipations of future misery which we have.  The death they suffer in our hands commonly is, and always may be, a speedier, and by that means a less painful one, than that which would await them in the inevitable course of nature.  If the being killed were all, there is very good reason why we should be suffered to kill such as molest us:  we should be the worse for their living, and they are never the worse for being dead.  But is there any reason why we should be suffered to torment them?  Not any that I can see.  Are there any why we should not be suffered to torment them?  Yes, several.  The day has been, I grieve to say in many places it is not yet past, in which the greater part of the species, under the denomination of slaves, have been treated by the law exactly upon the same footing as, in England for example, the inferior races of animals are still.  The day may come, when the rest of the animal creation may acquire those rights which never could have been withholden from them but by the hand of tyranny.  The French have already discovered that the blackness of the skin is no reason why a human being should be abandoned without redress to the caprice of a tormentor.  It may come one day to be recognized, that the number of the legs, the villosity of the skin, or the termination of the os sacrum, are reasons equally insufficient for abandoning a sensitive being to the same fate.  What else is it that should trace the insuperable line?  Is it the faculty of reason, or, perhaps, the faculty of discourse?  But a full-grown horse or dog is beyond comparison a more rational, as well as a more conversable animal, than an infant of a day, or a week, or even a month, old.  But suppose the case were otherwise, what would it avail?  The question is not, can they reason?  Nor, can they talk?  But, can they suffer? - Jeremy Bentham, Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (1789), p.244

Benjamin Franklin

I believe I have omitted mentioning that, in my first voyage from Boston, being becalm’d off Block Island, our people set about catching cod, and hauled up a great many.  Hitherto I had stuck to my resolution of not eating animal food, and on this occasion consider’d, with my master Tryon, the taking every fish as a kind of unprovoked murder, since none of them had, or ever could do us any injury that might justify the slaughter.  All this seemed very reasonable.  But I had formerly been a great lover of fish, and, when this came hot out of the frying-pan, it smelt admirably well.  I balanc’d some time between principle and inclination, till I recollected that, when the fish were opened, I saw smaller fish taken out of their stomachs; then thought I, “If you eat one another, I don’t see why we mayn’t eat you.”  So I din’d upon cod very heartily, and continued to eat with other people, returning only now and then occasionally to a vegetable diet.  So convenient a thing it is to be a reasonable creature, since it enables one to find or make a reason for everything one has a mind to do.- Benjamin Franklin, The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin (1909), p.31-32


Well then, we understand that that sort of men are used to say, that in eating of flesh they follow the conduct and direction of Nature.  But that it is not natural to mankind to feed on flesh, we first of all demonstrate from the very shape and figure of the body.  For a human body no ways resembles those that were born for ravenousness; it hath no hawk’s bill, no sharp talon, no roughness of teeth, no such strength of stomach or heat of digestion, as can be sufficient to convert or alter such heavy and fleshy fare.  But even from hence, that is, from the smoothness of the tongue, and the slowness of the stomach to digest, Nature seems to disclaim all pretence to fleshy victuals.  But if you will contend that yourself was born to an inclination to such food as you have now a mind to eat, do you then yourself kill what you would eat.  But do it yourself, without the help of a chopping-knife, mallet, or axe - as wolves, bears, and lions do, who kill and eat at once.  Rend an ox with thy teeth, worry a hog with thy mouth, tear a lamb or a hare in pieces, and fall on and eat it alive as they do.  But if thou hadst rather stay until what thou eatest is become dead, and if thou art loath to force a soul out of its body, why then dost thou against Nature eat an animate thing?  Nay, there is nobody that is willing to eat even a lifeless and a dead thing as it is; but they boil it, and roast it, and alter it by fire and medicines, as it were, changing and quenching the slaughtered gore with thousands of sweet sauces, that the palate being thereby deceived may admit of such uncouth fare. - Plutarch, Plutarch’s Morals: The Eating of Flesh (1878), p.7-8

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

In proceeding thus, we shall not be obliged to make man a philosopher before he is a man.  His duties toward others are not dictated to him only by the later lessons of wisdom; and, so long as he does not resist the internal impulse of compassion, he will never hurt any other man, nor even any sentient being, except on those lawful occasions on which his own preservation is concerned and he is obliged to give himself the preference.  By this method also we put an end to the time-honoured disputes concerning the participation of animals in natural law:  for it is clear that, being destitute of intelligence and liberty, they cannot recognise that law; as they partake, however, in some measure of our nature, in consequence of the sensibility with which they are endowed, they ought to partake of natural right; so that mankind is subjected to a kind of obligation even toward the brutes.  It appears, in fact, that if I am bound to do no injury to my fellow-creatures, this is less because they are rational than because they are sentient beings:  and this quality, being common both to men and beasts, ought to entitle the latter at least to the privilege of not being wantonly ill-treated by the former. - Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Discourse on the Origin of Inequality (1754), p.10

Henry Stephens Salt

Above all, the sense of ridicule that at present attaches to the supposed “sentimentalism” of an advocacy of animals' rights, must be faced and swept away.  The fear of this absurd charge deprives the cause of humanity of many workers who would otherwise lend their aid, and accounts in part for the unduly diffident and apologetic tone which is too often adopted by humanitarians.  We must meet this ridicule, and retort it without hesitation on those to whom it properly pertains.  The laugh must be turned against the true ''cranks" and “crotchet-mongers” – the noodles who can give no wiser reason for the infliction of suffering on animals than that it is "better for the animals themselves" – the flesh-eaters who labor under the pious belief that animals were “sent” us as food – the silly women who imagine that the corpse of a bird is a becoming article of head-gear—the half-witted sportsmen who vow that the vigor of the English race is dependent on the practice of fox-hunting—and the half-enlightened scientists who are unaware that vivisection has moral and spiritual, no less than physical, consequences.  That many of our arguments are mere superficial sword-play, and do not touch the profound emotional sympathies on which the cause of humanity rests, is a fact which does not lessen their controversial significance.  For this is a case where those who take the sword shall perish by the sword; and the clever men-of-the-world who twit consistent humanitarians with sickly sentimentality may perhaps discover that they themselves – fixed as they are in an ambiguous and utterly untenable position – are the sickliest sentimentalists of all. -Henry S. Salt, Animals’ Rights:  Considered In Relation To Social Progress (1894), p.97-98

Arthur Schopenhauer

Gobineau in his work ‘Les Races Humaines’ has called man l’animal méchant par excellence.  People take this very ill, because they feel that it hits them; but he is quite right, for man is the only animal which causes pain to others without any further purpose than just to cause it.  Other animals never do it except to satisfy their hunger, or in the rage of combat.  If it is said against the tiger that he kills more than eats, he strangles his prey only for the purpose of eating it; and if he cannot eat it, the only explanation is, as the French phrase has it, that ses yeux sont plus grands que son estomac.  No animal ever torments another for the mere purpose of tormenting, but man does it, and it is this that constitutes the diabolical feature in his character which is so much worse than the merely animal.  I have already spoken of the matter in its broad aspect; but it is manifest even in small things, and every reader has a daily opportunity of observing it.  For instance, if two little dogs are playing together—and what a genial and charming sight it is—and a child of three or four years joins them, it is almost inevitable for it to begin hitting them with a whip or stick, and thereby show itself, even at that age, l’animal méchant par excellence.  The love of teasing and playing tricks, which is common enough, may be traced to the same source.  For instance, if a man has expressed his annoyance at any interruption or other petty inconvenience, there will be no lack of people who for that very reason will bring it about:  animal méchant par excellence!  This is so certain that a man should be careful not to express any annoyance at small evils.  On the other hand he should also be careful not to express his pleasure at any trifle, for, if he does so, men will act like the jailer who, when he found that his prisoner had performed the laborious task of taming a spider, and took a pleasure in watching it, immediately crushed it under his foot:  l’animal méchant par excellence!  This is why all animals are instinctively afraid of the sight, or even of the track of a man, that animal méchant par excellence! nor does their instinct them false; for it is man alone who hunts game for which he has no use and which does him no harm. - Arthur Schopenhauer, On Human Nature (1897), p.17-18

George Bernard Shaw

Just so do we find a crowd of petty vivisectionists daily committing atrocities and stupidities, because it is the custom to do so.  Vivisection is customary as part of the routine of preparing lectures in medical schools.  For instance, there are two ways of making the action of the heart visible to students.  One, a barbarous, ignorant, and thoughtless way, is to stick little flags into a rabbit's heart and let the students see the flags jump.  The other, an elegant, ingenious, well-informed, and instructive way, is to put a sphygmograph on the student's wrist and let him see a record of his heart's action traced by a needle on a slip of smoked paper.  But it has become the custom for lecturers to teach from the rabbit; and the lecturers are not original enough to get out of their groove.  Then there are the demonstrations which are made by cutting up frogs with scissors.  The most humane man, however repugnant the operation may be to him at first, cannot do it at lecture after lecture for months without finally and that very soon feeling no more for the frog than if he were cutting up pieces of paper.  Such clumsy and lazy ways of teaching are based on the cheapness of frogs and rabbits.  If machines were as cheap as frogs, engineers would not only be taught the anatomy of machines and the functions of their parts:  they would also have machines misused and wrecked before them so that they might learn as much as possible by using their eyes, and as little as possible by using their brains and imaginations.  Thus we have, as part of the routine of teaching, a routine of vivisection which soon produces complete indifference to it on the part even of those who are naturally humane.  If they pass on from the routine of lecture preparation, not into general practice, but into research work, they carry this acquired indifference with them into the laboratory, where any atrocity is possible, because all atrocities satisfy curiosity.  The routine man is in the majority in his profession always:  consequently the moment his practice is tracked down to its source in human passion there is a great and quite sincere pooh-poohing from himself, from the mass of the profession, and from the mass of the public, which sees that the average doctor is much too commonplace and decent a person to be capable of passionate wickedness of any kind. - George Bernard Shaw, The Doctor’s Dilemma (1922), p.56-57

Percy Bysshe Shelley

There is no disease, bodily or mental, which adoption of vegetable diet and pure water has not infallibly mitigated, wherever the experiment has been fairly tried.  Debility is gradually converted into strength, disease into healthfulness:  madness, in all its hideous variety, from the ravings of the fettered maniac, to the unaccountable irrationalities of ill-temper, that make a hell of domestic life, into a calm and considerable evenness of temper, that alone might offer a certain pledge of the future moral reformation of society.  On a natural system of diet, old age would be our last and our only malady:  the term of our existence would be protracted; we should enjoy life, and no longer preclude others from the enjoyment of it; all sensational delights would be infinitely more exquisite and perfect; the very sense of being would then be a continued pleasure, such as we now feel it in some few and favored moments of our youth.  By all that is sacred in our hopes for the human race, I conjure those who love happiness and truth, to give a fair trial to the vegetable system.  Reasoning is surely superfluous on a subject whose merits an experience of six months would set for ever at rest.  But it is only among the enlightened and benevolent that so great a sacrifice of appetite and prejudice can be expected, even though its ultimate excellence should not admit of dispute. - Percy Bysshe Shelley, A Vindication of Natural Diet (1813), p.18

Rabindranath Tagore

We manage to swallow flesh only because we do not think of the cruel and sinful thing we do. There are many crimes which are the creation of man himself, the wrongfulness of which is put down to their divergence from habit, custom, or tradition.  But cruelty is not of these.  It is a fundamental sin, and admits of no argument or nice distinctions.  If only we do not allow our heart to grow callous, its protest against cruelty is always clearly heard; and yet we go on perpetrating cruelties easily, merrily, all of us - in fact, any one who does not join in is dubbed a crank.

How artificial is our apprehension of sin!  I feel that the highest commandment is that of sympathy for all sentient beings.  Love is the foundation of all religion.  The other day I read in one of the English papers that 50,000 pounds of animal carcasses had been sent to some army station in Africa, but the meat being found to have gone bad on arrival, the consignment was returned and was eventually auctioned off for a few pounds at Portsmouth.  What a shocking waste of life!  What callousness to its true worth!  How many living creatures are sacrificed only to grace the dishes at a dinner-party, a large proportion of which will leave the table

So long as we are unconscious of our cruelty we may not be to blame.  But if, after our pity is aroused, we persist in throttling our feelings simply in order to join others in their preying upon life, we insult all that is good in us.

- Rabindranath Tagore, Glimpses of Bengal (1895), p.42

Henry David Thoreau

It may be vain to ask why the imagination will not be reconciled to flesh and fat. I am satisfied that it is not. Is it not a reproach that man is a carnivorous animal? True, he can and does live, in a great measure, by preying on other animals; but this is a miserable way,—as any one who will go to snaring rabbits, or slaughtering lambs, may learn,—and he will be regarded as a benefactor of his race who shall teach man to confine himself to a more innocent and wholesome diet. Whatever my own practice may be, I have no doubt that it is a part of the destiny of the human race, in its gradual improvement, to leave off eating animals, as surely as the savage tribes have left off eating each other when they came in contact with the more civilized. - Henry David Thoreau, Walden; or, Life in the Woods (1854), p.161

Leo Tolstoy

Once, when walking from Moscow, I was offered a lift by some carters who were going from Serpouhof to a neighboring forest to fetch wood.  It was the Thursday before Easter.  I was seated in the first cart, with a strong, red, coarse carman, who evidently drank.  On entering a village we saw a well-fed, naked, pink pig being dragged out of the first yard to be slaughtered.  It squealed in a dreadful voice, resembling the shriek of a man.  Just as we were passing they began to kill it.  A man gashed its throat with a knife.  The pig squealed still more loudly and piercingly, broke away from the men, and ran off covered with blood.  Being near-sighted I did not see all the details.  I saw only the human-looking pink body of the pig and heard its desperate squeal; but the carter saw all the details and watched closely.  They caught the pig, knocked it down, and finished cutting its throat.  When its squeals ceased the carter sighed heavily. ‘Do men really not have to answer for such things.' he said.  So strong is man's aversion to all killing.  But by example, by encouraging greediness, by the assertion that God has allowed it, and, above all, by habit, people entirely lose this natural feeling. - Leo Tolstoy, Essays & Letters:  The First Step (1892), p.84-85